May 5, 2020

Energy Efficient Lighting Techniques for Cost Effectiveness 

Energy-efficient lighting reduces electricity demand and is a cost-effective method of lighting systems compared to conventional lighting ways.

In recent years, the gap between power generation figures and demand figures is a matter of great concern. It implies the failure of the power supply system to meet the power demand, thus a warning about lack of energy conservation.

What is Energy Efficient Lighting?

Lighting is necessary to make objects visible in dark places or situations. How well the light is produced for given input power is referred to as Efficiency. Lighting accounts for 19 percent of the global electricity and 25-30% of home energy consumption.

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In older lamps like incandescent and gas discharge lamps, most of the electricity is wasted in terms of heat, and since ballast requires high voltage at the time of starting, these consume more power.

Energy Efficient Lighting

Energy-efficient lighting includes the use of more illumination from lower power lights to be replaced by high power consumption lights such as incandescent, and high discharge lamps. It is also used in various control technologies like GPRS or GSM or SCADA based controls. It is replacing top power lighting accessories with low power devices like fixtures, electronic ballasts, etc.

Energy Efficient Lighting Techniques

Replace an ordinary bulb

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Incandescent lamps waste ninety percent of the electricity as heat rather than light, and also 3-5 times more power is consumed. So replacing these bulbs with energy-saving bulbs gives an efficient energy lighting system. There are two main types of energy-efficient lights or blubs.
1. Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL)
2. Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamps
3. Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFL)

These are the most common type of energy-saving lights. These are available at different shapes, sizes, and ratings and uses more advanced technology than the incandescent lights.

These use 75 percent less power and last 10-15 times as compared to an ordinary bulb. CFL bulb takes high current during starting and low flow while working in the meantime.

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CFL (Compact Fluorescent Lamps)

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CFL bulbs contain a glass tube with phosphorus coating (for color rendering), filled with argon gas and mercury vapor. The electronic ballast is used to create high voltage during the starting to create an arc between electrodes. Its operation is the same for fluorescent lamps. When the fluorescent lamp is switched on, electricity running between the electrodes agitates the mercury vapor. The mercury vapor causes an ultraviolet light emission, which causes visible light by phosphorous coating.

LED Lamps (Light Emitting Diode)

These are also the most energy-efficient and most durable bulbs, the only constraint being the expensiveness. These are different from ordinary lamps as they do not get hot or burn-out. These produce equivalent illumination as incandescent lamps while consuming 80 percent less electricity than incandescent bulbs and fluorescent lights. LED lamps last longer as long as 50000 hrs of life cycle rating.

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Comparison by the wattage of various Lamps

For the same amount of illumination, incandescent lamps are rated somewhat higher than the CFL and LED bulbs, so the energy consumption is high. As compared with CFL lamps, LED lamps are rated somewhat lower, so the energy consumption is too small. Hence energy-efficient lights conserve the supply as compared with ordinary lights. Also, in the life cycle perspective, these lamps reduce CO2 emissions and mercury pollution while going through the fossil fuel burning process.

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Using Lighting Controls

Another key to reducing energy consumption is to use light energy as much as needed with available lights. It is possible by keeping various sensing devices to switch the lights such as motion sensors, infrared sensors, automatic timers, etc. These sensors sense the daylight availability, presence of humans and other living species, instruction for remote operating, etc.

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Wireless Street Light Control

GSM/SCADA/GPS based centralized systems monitor and control the lighting system efficiently and reliably to save energy. The auto intensity of street lights can also be controlled through the setting timer, which gradually reduces the power as reducing traffic on late nights and ensures shutdown ultimately at morning periods.

Replacing old models with energy-efficient accessories

Ballasts, fixtures, and other accessories of lamps also play an essential role in energy saving. Ballasts or chokes installed with lights should be electronic or low loss copper ballasts to save energy compared to conventional ballasts, including non-integrated ballasts in CFL bulbs. This also improves the power factor.

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The new way to save energy is by using energy-efficient fixtures, which uses 75 percent less energy than standard incandescent ones. These fixtures increase the illumination by low energy consumption and protect the lamps for longer life.

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This is all about energy-efficient lighting. Re-lamping by energy-efficient lamps and ballasts uses advanced control techniques for a better lighting system. I hope that you have understood this concept.

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